In the typography and visual communication lecture, from a theoretical angle, we discussed about the definition of typography, the history and the reflection of typography, approaches as well as its communication in action.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language readable and appealing. The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces,point size, line length, line-spacing (leading), letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space within letters pairs. Type design is a closely related craft, sometimes considered part of typography; most typographers do not design typefaces, and some type designers do not consider themselves typographers. In modern times, typography has been put in film, television and online broadcasts to add emotion to communication.
——–Josef Müller-Brockmann’s poster
The Swiss Typography（Grids System）
In the history of typograhy, we have to mention is the Swiss style, before that, I must mention the legend font ‘Helvetica’, which is the origin of the Swiss design style. In the 1950 s, Europe has just experienced a step-by-step stable political reform, and begining to enter the period of rapid economy development, the whole of Europe’s confidence is growing gradually at the same time. People are very practical, who have aim on doing better on the base of good. Helvetica’s success is rooted in such pragmatism at that time, which also reflects the recognition and praise of people to the “source” of this font, not refer to the creator himself, but to a country which always maintained a neutral (Switzerland) – this is a legend. The font perfectly interpret the attitude and view of this country.
Swiss Design broke the previous formal design style, its unique design concept and simple geometry method innovated the history of typography, exploiting the postmodernism design. Compared with Laszlo Moholy Nagy, EI Lissitzky’s work, the Swiss break the space limitation, extending imaginationg of outside paper and breaking the bondage of frame. Representative designer is josef müller-brockman（is considered one of the key players in the Swiss School of international Style, he certainly influenced not only a design style that influenced designers on a global scale.）He advocates design concept of ‘less is more’ in his design career, Constructivism, De Still, Suprematism and the Bauhaus have a strong impact on opening a new direction in design field, josef müller-brockman stand for photography design method, using simple geometric structure to create virtual space of paper outside, and has a depth of description on detail, paying attention to visual engagement and spatial balance. His Work is full of strong spirit of minimalism, supremeness and constructivism. Mysterious simple geometric structure, the use of negative space and extreme constrast on size, which can let the audience more interested to understand the meaning, in terms of vision is more penetrating, impact and persuasive.
—— Kazimir Severinovich Malevich Suprematism
David Carson, experiment designer leader, whose work is a big constrast with The Swiss, he was completely broke the design principle of previous typography that maintain order and clean layout, his work full of strong sense of electronics, and more dependent on computer technology of post-processing, he make typography more upgrades, more vivid and the storytelling。 Fancy and exaggerated layout and font design covers the real content of words, reading his works have feeling of a demo of the unfinished products and the restlessness sense of metal, furthermore, it’s easy to let the audience imagine indie rock and experimental music, such as glass boy and CAN’s music are suitable as his background music, He perfectly absorb abstract expressionism colour into his design style, giving person the sense of strong avant-garde and super era.
his widely imitated aesthetic defined the so – called “grunge typography” era.
In the article’“ILLEGIBLE” DAVID CARSON CANNOT NOT COMMUNICATE’, Joe Clark wrote ’Every single typesetting rule of thumb you could possibly come up with has been broken in Ray Gun’s brief history: Overlapping blocks of copy; light text against dark backgrounds; dark text against dark backgrounds; running text across pages, including stories that are read horizontally across columns (just hop over the gutter between them); deliberately running photos upside-down.‘
In one interview, David Carson was asked that “Why break so many rules, David? “I never learned all the rules, all the things you’re not supposed to do,” he said in an interview. (Carson’s formal training in the graphic arts consists of a single brief course – one intended for high-school students like the ones he was teaching at the time.) “So I don’t believe the attitude, ‘learn the rules to know how to break them.’